Cytogenetic is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, particularly the chromosomes. It incorporates routine examination of G-grouped chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding strategies, and atomic cytogenetics, for example, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and similar genomic hybridization (CGH). Chromosomes were first seen in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842. Their conduct in creature (lizard) cells was depicted by Walther Fleming, the pioneer of mitosis, in 1882. The name was begat by another German anatomist, von Waldeyer in 1888.

The following stage occurred after the improvement of hereditary qualities in the mid twentieth century, when it was valued that the arrangement of chromosomes (the karyotype) was the bearer of the qualities. Levitsky appears to have been the first to characterize the karyotype as the phenotypic appearance of the physical chromosomes, as opposed to their genic substance. Examination concerning the human karyotype took numerous years to settle the most fundamental inquiry: what number of chromosomes does an ordinary diploid human cell contain? In 1912, Hans von Winiwarter detailed 47 chromosomes in spermatogonia and 48 in oogonia, finishing up a XX/XO sex assurance component. Painter in 1922 was not sure whether the diploid number of man was 46 or 48, at first supporting 46. He overhauled his assessment later from 46 to 48, and he accurately demanded man having a XX/XY framework. Considering their techniques, these results were quite remarkable.

  • Chromosome structure
  • Copy number/structural genomic variation
  • Cytogenetic studies
  • Molecular cytogenetic technologies (eg, FISH, microarrays, etc.)

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