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2nd World Congress on HUMAN GENETICS , will be organized around the theme “Genomic Revolution: A debate on Human Genetic Disorders & Diseases”

Human Genetics 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Human Genetics 2017

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Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical geneticscytogenetic, molecular geneticsbiochemical geneticsgenomicspopulation geneticsdevelopmental geneticsclinical genetics, and genetic counseling.

Genes can be the common factor of the qualities of most human-inherited traits. Study of human genetics can be useful as it can answer questions about human nature, understand the diseases and development of effective disease treatment, and understand genetics of human life. This article describes only basic features of human genetics

 

It is the study of genetics at the level of the basic building blocks of cells and at the DNA level. Cells are as complex as they are tiny and much is still unknown about the inner workings of these building blocks of life. If you'd like to log hours in a lab and use advanced equipment to help advance the understanding of how cells work, studies in cellular and molecular biology could be for you. Biology is the study of living things, and cellular or molecular biology studies living things on the smallest possible scale. To prepare for a career in cellular or molecular biology, individuals must have a strong understanding of chemistry, statistics and physics. The research of cellular and molecular biologists is integral to things like the development of new medications, the protection of aquatic ecosystems and the improvement of agricultural products. A student pursuing an undergraduate or graduate degree in cellular and molecular Genetics spends time divided between classroom lectures and practical laboratory instruction. Research is an important part of this field, and students must be comfortable using highly advanced pieces of equipment to conduct experiments. In addition, cellular and molecular biology programs teach students about cellular structures and their functions, how cells make and use things like proteins and enzymes and much more. Courses covered in a molecular or cellular biology degree program may include  microbiologyepidemiology, microscopy and molecular genetics.

Clinical Genetics is the medical specialty which provides a diagnostic service and "genetic counselling" for individuals or families with, or at risk of, conditions which may have a genetic basis. Genetic disorders can affect any body system and any age group. The aim of Genetic Services is to help those affected by, or at risk of, a genetic disorder to live and reproduce as normally as possible. In addition a large number of individuals with birth defects and/or learning disabilities are referred and investigated for genetic factors. Individuals identified through childhood or pregnancy screening programmes also require genetic services. In the future, as the genetic contributions to common later-onset disorders such as diabetes and coronary heart disease are identified, genetic services may be required for those at high risk. Testing for genetic factors that affect drug prescribing will also increasingly become an important activity.

Genomics is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism).Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research to understand even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. The field includes efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping. The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis, epistasis, pleiotropy and other interactions between loci and alleles within the genome. In contrast, the investigation of the roles and functions of single genes is a primary focus of molecular biology or genetics and is a common topic of modern medical and biological research. Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional information analysis is to elucidate its effect on, place in, and response to the entire genome's networks.

Cancer is a genetic disorder in which the normal control of cell growth is lost. Cancer genetics is now one of the fastest expanding medical specialties. At the molecular level, cancer is caused by mutation(s) in DNA, which result in aberrant cell proliferation. Most of these mutations are acquired and occur in somatic cells. However, some people inherit mutation(s) in the germ line. The mutation(s) occur in two classes of cellular genes: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Under normal conditions, tumor suppressor genesregulate cellular differentiation and suppression of proliferation. Mutations in these genes result in unchecked cellular proliferation resulting in tumors with abnormal cell cycles and tumor proliferation. The tumor suppressor genes contribute to cancer by the inactivating of loss of function mutation.

Many of the stem cells being studied are referred to as pluripotent, meaning they can give rise to any of the cell types in the body but they cannot give rise on their own to an entirely new body. (Only the earliest embryonic cells, which occur just after fertilization, can give rise to a whole other organism by themselves.) Other stem cells, such as the ones found in the adult body, are multipotent, meaning they can develop into a limited number of different tissue types. One of the most common stem cell treatments being studied is a procedure that extracts a few stem cells from a person's body and grows them in large quantities in the laboratory—what scientists refer to as expanding the number of stem cells. Once a sufficient number have been produced in this manner, the investigators inject them back into the patient. You could say that medicine up until now has been all about replacements. If your heart valve isn't working, you replace it with another valve, say from a pig. With regenerative medicine, you're treating the cause and using your own cells to perform the replacement. The hope is that by regenerating the tissue, you're causing the repairs to grow so that it's like normal.

The research program in the Genome Integrity is focused on the exploration of the causes and effects of genomic instability, mechanisms of DNA repair and the study of DNA repair breakdown as an initiating or protective event in aging and cancers. The program will emphasize a mechanistic understanding of the pathways that maintain genomic integrity, the intersection of these pathways with normal cellular physiology and cancer and the application of these insights to the development of new therapeutic strategies. The Genome integrity has made major contributions towards a detailed understanding of DNA repair pathway selection as a primary influence on genomic stability and drug resistance/sensitivity in breast and ovarian cancers and the influential role of DNA repair proteins in the promotion of specific hematological malignancies

The UK is officially the 'fattest' country in Europe, with approximately 1 in 5 adults overweight and one in every 15 obese. Over the next 20 years, the number of obese adults in the country is forecast to soar by a staggering 73% to 26 million people. According to health experts, such a rise would result in more than a million extra cases of type 2 diabetes,heart disease and cancer. Obesity is also no longer a condition that just affects older people, although the likelihood does increase with age, and increasing numbers of young people have been diagnosed with obesity.

Congenital Disorder, also known as congenital disease, birth defect or anomaly  is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed "congenital anomalies" and involve defects in a developing fetus. Birth defects vary widely in cause and symptoms. Any substance that causes birth defects is known as a teratogen. Some disorders can be detected before birth through prenatal diagnosis (screening). Birth defects are present in about 3% of newborns in USA. Congenital anomalies resulted in about 632,000 deaths per year in 2013 down from 751,000 in 1990. The type with the greatest numbers of deaths are congenital heart disease (323,000), followed by neural tube defects (69,000).

Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes. It includes routine analysis of G-banded chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding techniques, as well as molecular cytogenetics such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Chromosomes were first observed in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842. Their behavior in animal (salamander) cells was described by Walther Flemming, the discoverer of mitosis, in 1882. The name was coined by another German anatomist, von Waldeyer in 1888.

Transplantation is the transfer (engraftment) of human cells, tissues or organs from a donor to a recipient with the aim of restoring function(s) in the body. When transplantation is performed between different species, e.g. animal to human, it is named xenotransplantation. Development of the field of organ and tissue transplantation has accelerated remarkably since the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was discovered in 1967. Matching of donor and recipient for MHC antigens has been shown to have a significant positive effect on graft acceptance. The roles of the different components of the immune system involved in the tolerance or rejection of grafts and in graft-versus-host disease have been clarified. These components include: antibodies, antigen presenting cells, helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets, immune cell surface molecules, signaling mechanisms and cytokines that they release.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows. The term is sometimes erroneously used as an exclusive synonym for autism and autism spectrum disorders. The development of the brain is orchestrated, tightly regulated, and genetically encoded process with clear influence from the environment. This suggests that any deviation from this program early in life can result in neurodevelopmental disorders and, depending on specific timing, might lead to distinct pathology later in life. Because of that, there are many causes of neurodevelopmental disorder, which can range from deprivation, genetic and metabolic diseases, immune disorders, infectious diseases, nutritional factors, physical trauma, and toxic and environmental factors. Some neurodevelopmental disorders—such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders—are considered multifactorial syndromes (with many causes but more specific neurodevelopmental manifestation).

Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.The term pharmacogenetics is often used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics which also investigates the role of acquired and inherited genetic differences in relation to drug response and drug behavior through a systematic examination of genes, gene products, and inter- and intra-individual variation in gene expression and function.

Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs. This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to develop effective, safe medications and doses that will be tailored to a person’s genetic makeup. Many drugs that are currently available are “one size fits all,” but they don’t work the same way for everyone. It can be difficult to predict who will benefit from a medication, who will not respond at all, and who will experience negative side effects (called adverse drug reactions). Adverse drug reactions are a significant cause of hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. With the knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project, researchers are learning how inherited differences in genes affect the body’s response to medications. These genetic differences will be used to predict whether a medication will be effective for a particular person and to help prevent adverse drug reactions.The field of pharmacogenomics is still in its infancy. Its use is currently quite limited, but new approaches are under study in clinical trials. In the future, pharmacogenomics will allow the development of tailored drugs to treat a wide range of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS, and asthma.

Driven by chemistry but increasingly guided by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to the progress of medicine during the past century than any other scientific factor. Improving the science of drug development and regulation is important in fulfilling the public health. The advent of molecular biology and, in particular, of genomic sciences is having a deep impact on drug discovery. Emphasis is placed on the contrast between the academic and industrial research operating environments, which can influence the effectiveness of research collaboration between the two constituencies, but which plays such an important role in drug innovation. The strategic challenges that research directors face are also emphasized

Recent developments, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), bio-ontologies and the Semantic Web, and the growing role of hospital information technology (IT) systems and electronic health records, amass ever-increasing amounts of data before human genetics scientists and clinicians. However, they have ever-improving tools to analyze those data for research and clinical care. Correspondingly, the field of bioinformatics is turning to research questions in the field of human genetics, and the field of human genetics is making greater use of bioinformatic algorithms and tools. The choice of "Bioinformatics and Human Genetics" as the topic of this special issue of Human Mutation reflects this new importance of bioinformatics and medical informatics in human genetics. Experts from among the attendees of the Paris 2010 Human Variome Project symposium provide a survey of some of the "hot" computational topics over the next decade. These experts identify the promise-what human geneticists who are not themselves bioinformaticians stand to gain-as well as the challenges and unmet needs that are likely to represent fruitful areas of research.